Zinc deficiency, infectious disease and mortality in the developing world. It additionally: Supports your immune system that is healthy Crucial for wound healing. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1985;319:158-63. Zinc extraction is done in three steps. Despite the small number of characterized Ni-proteins, it is clear that many different environments exist, from apparently direct coordination to protein ligands (urease) to the tetrapyrrole F430 in methylreductase and the multiple metal sites of Ni and Fe-S in a hydrogenase from the bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas. Zinc toxicity can occur in both acute and chronic forms. In fact, almost 20 metalloenzymes have an active site formed through zinc. Both quinolone antibiotics (such as Cipro®) and tetracycline antibiotics (such as Achromycin® and Sumycin®) interact with zinc in the gastrointestinal tract, inhibiting the absorption of both zinc and the antibiotic [89,90]. Oral zinc for arterial and venous leg ulcers. The percentage of elemental zinc varies by form. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly. Zinc is a trace mineral found in all bodily tissues, but especially concentrated in the eye, bone, and male reproductive organs. The DV for zinc on the new Nutrition Facts and Supplement Facts labels and used for the values in Table 2 is 11 mg for adults and children aged 4 years and older [15]. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. Changes in cytokine production and T cell subpopulations in experimentally induced zinc-deficient humans. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2004;44:594-603. Although studies examining the effect of zinc treatment on cold symptoms have had somewhat conflicting results, overall zinc appears to be beneficial under certain circumstances. Supports progression and the healthy Zinc in Human Biology. Understanding zinc: recent observations and interpretations. [, Kang YJ, Zhou Z. Zinc prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver disease. The History of Zinc . [, Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, Fung EB, Ohene-Frempong K, Stallings VA. Effect of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with sickle cell disease. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA. For these reasons, the RDA for zinc is higher for pregnant and lactating women than for other women (see Table 1) [2]. The World Health Organization and UNICEF now recommend short-term zinc supplementation (20 mg of zinc per day, or 10 mg for infants under 6 months, for 10–14 days) to treat acute childhood diarrhea [63]. But little is known about the structure of the factor or of any other specific chromium complexes from plants, animals, or bacteria. However, use of stored iron is reduced by copper deficiency, which suggests that iron metabolism may depend on copper proteins, such as the serum protein ceruloplasmin, which can function as a ferroxidase, and the cellular protein ascorbic acid oxidase, which also is a ferrireductase. J Lab Clin Med 1994;124:322-7. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. Researchers have hypothesized that zinc could reduce the severity and duration of cold symptoms by directly inhibiting rhinovirus binding and replication in the nasal mucosa and suppressing inflammation [68,69]. Zinc supplementation during lactation. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45 (1 Suppl):S73-7. [, The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1998;36:99-101. When the investigators considered intakes from both food and dietary supplements, they found that 20%–25% of older adults still had inadequate zinc intakes [24]. Much of the zinc in animals and plants has no known function, but it may be maintaining the structures of proteins that activate and deactivate genes.11. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease. Zinc deficiency in women, infants and children. Some Mo-proteins contain additional cofactors such as the Havins, e.g., in xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels and Serving Sizes of Foods That Can Reasonably Be Consumed at One Eating Occasion; Dual-Column Labeling; Updating, Modifying, and Establishing Certain Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed; Serving Size for Breath Mints; and Technical Amendments; Proposed Extension of Compliance Dates. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:569-74. Acute diarrhea is associated with high rates of mortality among children in developing countries [63]. [, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Bao B, Snell D, Fitzgerald JT. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Zinc supplementation alone significantly reduced the risk of developing advanced AMD in subjects at higher risk but not in the total study population. Among the other well-characterized zinc proteins are the Cu-Zn superoxide dismutases (other forms have Fe or Mn), carbonic anhydrase (an abundant protein in red blood cells responsible for maintaining the pH of the blood), alcohol dehydrogenase, and a variety of hydrolases involved in the metabolism of sugars, proteins, and nucleic acids. The bioavailability of zinc from vegetarian diets is lower than from non-vegetarian diets because vegetarians do not eat meat, which is high in bioavailable zinc and may enhance zinc absorption. Am J Physiol 1997;272:E1002-7. Vitamin-B12 deficiency causes the severe disease of pernicious anemia in humans, which indicates the critical role of cobalt. [, Spain RI, Leist TP, De Sousa EA. However, because AREDS2 had fewer participants than the original AREDS study, and fewer than half took the lower zinc formula, the researchers view this finding as preliminary. Individuals taking these medications on a regular basis should discuss their zinc intakes with their healthcare providers. Of the trace minerals, this element is second only to iron in its concentration in the body. However, the authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2007 concluded that zinc is not effective for the primary prevention of early AMD [77], although zinc might reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. [, Prasad AS. Zinc is a key element required for active wound healing. Similar findings were reported in a meta-analysis published in 2008 and a 2007 review of zinc supplementation for preventing and treating diarrhea [66,67]. Aging (Milano) 1995;7:77-93. Zinc is a common element in nucleic-acid polymerases and transcription factors, where its role is considered to be structural rather than catalytic. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2006;20:3-18. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. A survey of the sequences of many nucleic-acid binding proteins shows that many of them have the common motif required to form zinc fingers. [, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE. BMJ 2003;326:409-10. [, Turner RB, Cetnarowski WE. [, Wilkinson EA, Hawke CI. [. Zinc supplementation has improved the growth rate in some children who demonstrate mild-to-moderate growth failure and who have a zinc deficiency [27,44]. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the pancreas may aid in the process of about 100 within! 1998 ; 68 ( 2 Suppl ):509S -12S mortality among children an! 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